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Motivation Module 10.6


Extrinsic Motivation

Background Information

Extrinsic motivation is reward-driven behavior. It’s a type of operant conditioning, which is a form of behavior modification that uses rewards or punishments to increase or decrease the probability that explicit actions will recur. In extrinsic motivation, rewards or other incentives — like praise, fame, or money — are used to motivate. However, extrinsic motivation doesn’t always have a tangible reward. It can also be done through abstract rewards, like praise. promotion or fame .(Source: https://www. Healthline .com/health/extrinsic-motivation). In contrast to doing something for a reward, extrinsic motivation also has an avoidance goal; for example, to avoid punishment or  being shamed or judged etc. (Source: https://www. verywellmind. com/what-is-extrinsic-motivation-2795164). 


The following are four different types of extrinsic motivation (Vallerand. 1997): 

i .  External regulation means you do something to satisfy an external demand or receive external incentives. An example would be a student who studies hard to get good grades to receive material rewards from their parents. Although the behavior is intentional, it is controlled by an external source. Thus this action is externally regulated. 


ii. Introjection regulation means taking in the cause of doing something but not fully accepting it. An example would be a student who spends lots of time practicing piano for a recital to avoid embarrassing themselves in front of others. This type of regulation is perceived as controlled because introjected behavior is performed due to internal pressure to reduce guilt or anxiety, enhance ego or pride, or maintain self-esteem or feeling of self-worth. 


iii.  Regulation THROUGH IDENTIFICATION is a less controlling form of extrinsic motivation. Identification means the person consciously values a goal and believes the activity is personally important. They don’t study simply because they feel they should.  


iv. INTEGRATED REGULATION occurs when one has fully taken in the reason for action, i.e., a person has examined the cause and found it compatible with their own values and needs. Then the action becomes self-initiated. It is autonomous and not controlled by external motivators ​( Ryan R & Deci, 2000). Despite being extrinsic, integrated motivation shares many similar qualities as intrinsic motivation and is the best type of extrinsic motivation. Some researchers even refer to integrated regulation as intrinsic because the person has completely internalized the extrinsic cause into their values. 



Extrinsic motivation can be used to motivate one to do various different things. If there’s a known reward tied to the task or outcome, extrinsic motivation is involved. Following are examples of extrinsic rewards. Write a story where one of the following situations is involved. 

  • competing in sports for trophies 

  • completing work for money 

  • customer loyalty discounts 

  • buy one, get one free sales 

  • frequent flyer rewards 

  • helping people for praise from friends or family 

  • doing work for attention, either positive or negative 

  • doing tasks for public acclaim or fame 

  • doing tasks to avoid judgment 

  • completing coursework for grades 

Write about characters in a story, historical figures, or current scientific events that focus on the extrinsic motivation of the characters. Prompts for the activities follow: 


Prompts for Reading Comprehension 

What outside forces are driving the character? 

                    Why does --- not motivated the character? 

                    How does --- impact what the character loves? 

                    What does --- impact what the character thinks they need? 

                    What does --- impact what the character despises? 


Prompts for Historic Figures 

                    What outside forces pushed this person toward that act? 

                    Why did ----_not push this person to act? 

                    How did ­­­­_impact what this person love more than anything else? 

                    How did ----  impact what the person believe they needed? 

                    Who did ­­­__motivate the character’s enemy? 


 Prompts for Current Events 

                    What forces are pulling the group toward that idea? 

                    Why does---- not motivate the group to act? 

                    How does---  impact what the group wants? 

                    In the view of the group, how does--- impact others? 

                    Why does the group consider--- wrong? 

Note and Notice Activity - Hitting Rock Bottom 

Hitting Rock Bottom involves extrinsic motivation that forces change. It is marked by feelings of having no other choice but to change. The metaphor of hitting rock bottom usually is associated with extreme conditions such as alcoholism and drug addiction. However, this activity can be applied to such classroom scenarios as disruptive behavior or never doing homework or bullying others at which, do to becoming isolated, an individual decides to abandon a  “bad” habit with a new more socially accepted way of behaving. 



Mark each example with E to show Extrinsic and I to show Intrinsic Motivation

___Going to work to get paid

___Studying to get a good grade

___Working because you enjoy the job

___Studying because you find the subject interesting

___Working hard to get a raise or recognition from your boss

___Tackling a new project because you love a challenge

___Tidying your house to avoid feeling embarrassed when company  
comes over




Extrinsic examples- Extrinsic Motivation, Going to work to get paid, Studying to get a good grade, Working hard to get a raise or recognition from your boss, Tidying your house to avoid feeling embarrassed when company comes over


Intrinsic - Working because you enjoy the job, Studying because you find the subject interesting, Tackling a new project because you love a challenge, Tidying your house because a clean home keeps you calm



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